Born in a seaside town close to Tokyo, Japan, Uchida moved to Vienna, Austria when she was twelve with her diplomat parents, and she enrolled at the Vienna Academy of Music to study with Wilhelm Kempff and Stefan Askenase.
In 1969 she won the first prize in the Beethoven Competition in Vienna and in 1970 the second prize in the Chopin Competition. Then in 1975, she won second prize in the prestigious Leeds Piano Competition.
She is an acclaimed interpreter of the works of Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert and Chopin. She has recorded all of Mozart's piano sonatas and concerti with the English Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Jeffrey Tate. She is also distinguished as an interpreter of the works of the Second Viennese School.
She is featured with Dame Felicity Lott in the 2005‐06 season of the Cleveland Orchestra.
She is an Artistic Director of the Marlboro Music School and Festival, along with fellow pianist Richard Goode.